Tangents  
 Created
 16 Dec 2004 
Material on this page is in the Public Domain. Modified 
 03 Jul 2011 

Essential Physical, Chemical, and Atomic
Properties of Elements

This page is intended as a comparative reference for those with an interest in the general properties and characteristics of elemental matter.  Data are catalogued in various formats, to assist in finding information and identifying patterns.


    Periodic Table   Element Groups   Properties   Cross-References    


Periodic Table of Elements

Color codes

alkali metals transition metals nonmetals halogens
alkali earth metals rate earth metals post-transition metals inert gases
1
Ia
                                18
0
1
H
1.01
2
IIa
                    13
IIIa
14
IVa
15
Va
16
VIa
17
VIIa
2
He
4.00
3
Li
6.94
4
Be
9.01
                    5
B
10.8
6
C
12.0
7
N
14.0
8
O
16.0
9
F
19.0
10
Ne
20.2
11
Na
23.0
12
Mg
24.3
3
IIIb
4
IVb
5
Vb
6
VIb
7
VIIb
8
VIIIb
9
VIIIb
10
VIIIb
11
Ib
12
IIb
13
Al
27.0
14
Si
28.1
15
P
31.0
16
S
32.1
17
Cl
35.5
18
Ar
39.9
19
K
39.1
20
Ca
40.1
21
Sc
45.0
22
Ti
47.9
23
V
50.9
24
Cr
52.0
25
Mn
54.9
26
=Fe=
55.8
27
=Co=
58.9
28
=Ni=
58.7
29
Cu
63.5
30
Zn
65.4
31
Ga
69.7
32
Ge
72.6
33
As
74.9
34
Se
79.0
35
Br
79.9
36
Kr
83.8
37
Rb
85.5
38
Sr
87.6
39
Y
88.9
40
Zr
91.2
41
Nb
92.9
42
Mo
95.9
43
Tc
99
44
Ru
101
45
Rh
103
46
Pd
106
47
Ag
108
48
Cd
112
49
In
115
50
Sn
119
51
Sb
122
52
Te
128
53
I
127
54
Xe
131
55
Cs
133
56
Ba
137
La-
Lu
72
Hf
178
73
Ta
181
74
W
184
75
Re
186
76
Os
190
77
Ir
192
78
Pt
195
79
Au
197
80
Hg
201
81
Tl
204
82
Pb
207
83
Bi
208
84
Po
209
85
At
210
86
Rn
222
87
Fr
223
88
Ra
226
Ac-
Lr
104
Rf
261
105
Db
268
106
Sg
271
107
Bh
270
108
Hs
269
109
Mt
278
110
Ds
281
111
Rg
281
112
Cn
285
           
                                   
  Lanthanide
series
57
La
139
58
Ce
140
59
Pr
141
60
Nd
144
61
Pm
145
62
Sm
150
63
Eu
152
64
Gd
157
65
Tb
159
66
Dy
163
67
Ho
165
68
Er
167
69
Tm
169
70
Yb
173
71
Lu
175
  Actinide
series
89
Ac
227
90
Th
232
91
Pa
231
92
U
238
93
Np
237
94
Pu
244
95
Am
243
96
Cm
247
97
Bk
247
98
Cf
251
99
Es
254
100
Fm
257
101
Md
258
102
No
259
103
Lr
260


Click here if you prefer to view the traditional, non-color-coded Periodic Table of Elements.


    Periodic Table   Element Groups   Properties   Cross-References    


General Qualities of Major Element Groups
Type Group Description State (@ r.t.)
alkali metals Ia
(1)
Highly electropositive elements, typical valence +1, metallic properties in solid phase, violently reactive with water (except hyderogen). S
o
L
i
G
a
alkaline earth metals IIa
(2)
Strongly electropositive metals, typical valence +2. l
i
q
u
s
transition metals Ib-VIIIb
(3-12)
Includes most common metals of moderate chemical reactivity. d i
d
 
lanthanide series IIIb
(3)
A subgroup of transition metals, also classified as rare earths.      
actinide series IIIb
(3)
A subgroup of transition metals, also classified as rare earths, all radioactive.      
post-transition metals IIIa-VIa
(13-16)
Weakly electropositive metals.      
non-metals IIIa-VIa
(13-16)
Non-metallic and semi-metallic solids, and gases, of reactivity ranging from slightly reducing to strongly oxidizing.      
halogens VIIa
(17)
Highly electronegative elements, typical valence -1, very toxic, range from solid to gaseous.      
noble gases 0
(18)
Highly unreactive gases.      
Many elements—even the lightest, hydrogen—have more than one isotope, and some of these may be radioactive. All known isotopes of technetium (43) and promethium (61), as well as all elements with atomic numbers greater than that of bismuth (83), are radioactive.


    Periodic Table   Element Groups   Properties   Cross-References    


Specific Properties & Characteristics of Elements
arranged numerically by atomic number
Unless otherwise noted, standard temperature (0C) and pressure (1000 millibars) are assumed.

Color codes

alkali metals transition metals nonmetals halogens
alkali earth metals rate earth metals post-transition metals inert gases
At.# Sym. Name At.Wt. Iso-
topes
Val. Melt
(C)
Boil
(C)
Sp.Gr. Remarks
1 H hydrogen 1.008 1, 2, 3 1 -259 -253 8.987 10-5 Lightest and most abundant element in the universe, present on earth combined with numerous other elements to form water, ammonia, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, acids, bases, and many other substances.
Chemically similar to alkali metals, but can also behave as a halogen.
H-3 (tritium) > He-3 +
b.
2 He helium 4.0026 4, 3 0 < -272 -268 1.785 10-4 Second most abundant element in the universe but scarce on earth. Produced underground by radioactive decay (a emission) of other elements.
Used as a flotation agent in blimps and dirigibles, a gas-displacement medium for deep-sea diving, and as a supercoolant.
3 Li lithium 6.941 7 1 179 1342 0.534 Reactive, silver-white metal; lightest of all metals.
4 Be beryllium 9.0122 9 2 1287 2469 1.848 Lightweight, rigid, corrosion-resistant, steel-gray metal. Used as aerospace structural material, and as moderators and reflectors in nuclear reactors. Alloyed with Cu for use in springs and electrical contacts.
5 B boron 10.811 11 3 2076 3927 2.34 Soft brown non-metal, amorphous and crystalline allotropes. Used in abrasives, propellant mixtures, reactor control rods.
6 C carbon 12.0112 11, 12, 13, 14 4, 3, 2 3642* 3642 1.8
3.53
Building block of all organic compounds. Four allotropes: graphite, lampblack, diamond, and buckminsterfullerene.
N-14 + neutron > C-14 + proton.
C-14 > N-14 +
b, half-life 5730 yr.
*Sublimation; no liquid phase.
7 N nitrogen 14.0067 14 3, 5 -209.9 -195.8 1.251
10-3
Most abundant element in earth's atmosphere (80%). Essential component of ammonia, amino acids, cyanides, and many other chemicals. In liquid form serves as a refrigerant.
8 O oxygen 15.9994 16 2 -218.8 -183.0 1.429 10-3 Very electronegative gas. Most abundant element on earth's surface, present in rock, water (combined with numerous other elements), and in air as O2 freed by photosynthesis in plants.
9 F fluorine 18.9984 19 1 -227.5
-219.6
-188.1 1.696 10-3 Pale yellow gas. Most reactive halogen, most electronegative element; never found free in nature, but always in compounds, such as fluorite.
10 Ne neon 20.1797 20 0 -248.6 -246.1 9.002
10-
4
Colorless inert gas, glows red-orange in an electrical discharge. Trace amounts in atmosphere, used in lighting and display devices.
At.# Sym. Name At.Wt. Iso-
topes
Val. Melt
(C)
Boil
(C)
Sp.Gr. Remarks
11 Na sodium 22.9898 23 1 97.72 883 0.971 Soft, light, silver white metal. Very reactive, found only in compounds; component of NaCl, table salt.
12 Mg magnesium 24.3050 24 2 650 1091 1.74 (@20C) Silver-white metal, burns with brilliant white flame. Occurs naturally only in compounds, such as minerals and salts.
13 Al aluminum 26.9815 27 3 660.3 2519 2.70 Ductile, silver-white metal. Ores in clays such as bauxite. Metal is good electrical and thermal conductor, forms non-shedding surface oxide, is used in applications requiring structural strength and light weight.
14 Si silicon 28.0855 28 4 1414 3265 2.33 Abundant (28% of earth crust) in form of SiO2 and silicates: feldspar, mica, quartz, present in most rocks, sand, and soil. Used in building materials, glass, and semiconductors.
15 P phosphorus 30.9738 31 3, 5 44.2
620
280.5
620
1.823
2.69
Reactive, toxic non-metal with 4 allotropes: white, red, violet, and black. A key component of biochemistry. Occurs naturally in phosphates; used in fertilizers, detergents, matches, pesticides.
16 S sulfur 32.065 32 2, 4, 6 112.8
119.0
444.6 1.92
2.07
Allotropes: light yellow crystal, amorphous.
17 Cl chlorine 35.453 35 1, 3, 5, 7 -101.5 -34.04 3.2
10-3
Yellow-green gas. Occurs naturally in compounds, such as NaCl, table salt.
18 Ar argon 39.948 40 0 -189.4 -185.9 1.784
10-3
Colorless inert gas comprises about 1% of earth's atmosphere. Used in incandescent bulbs, fluorescent and vacuum tubes, and in arc welding.
At.# Sym. Name At.Wt. Iso-
topes
Val. Melt
(C)
Boil
(C)
Sp.Gr. Remarks
19 K potassium 39.098 39, 40 1 63.38 759 0.862 Highly reactive, soft, silver-white metal. Its hydroxide and salts are used in soap and fertilizer. K-40 > Ar-40, half-life 1.3109 yr,
20 Ca calcium 40.078 40 2 842
848
1484 1.55 Moderately hard silver-white metal. Abundant (3% of earth crust) as CaCO3 in limestone, gypsum, fluorite.
21 Sc scandium 44.956 45 3 1541 2836 2.99 Silver-white metal, sometimes classified as a rare-earth element.
22 Ti titanium 47.867 48 2, 3, 4 1668 3287 4.54 Light, corrosion-resistant, lustrous white metal. Brittle in its pure state, but makes strong alloys suitable for lightweight applications such as aircraft.
23 V vanadium 50.942 51 2, 3, 4, 5 1910 3407 6.11 One of the hardest of all metals, with numerous applications in industry and tools.
24 Cr chromium 51.996 52 2, 3, 6 1907 2671 7.19 Hard, tarnish- and corrosion-resistant, lustrous steel-gray metal. Its ore is chromite, FeCr2O3. Used in steel alloys and as decorative plating.
25 Mn manganese 54.938 55 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 1246 2061 7.21 Gray-white metal. Used in ferromagnetic alloys.
26 Fe iron 55.845 56 2, 3, 4, 6 1538 2862 7.874 Strong, ductile, malleable, ferromagnetic silver-white metal. Moderately abundant ores include hematite and pyrite. Used in many applications, and the primary ingredient in steel.
27 Co cobalt 58.933 59, 60 2, 3 1495 2927 8.90 Hard, brittle metal. Used for magnetic alloys, and its salts are used in blue glass and ceramic pigments.
Co-60 half-life 5.7 yr, used in industry and radiation therapy.
28 Ni nickel 58.693 59 0, 1, 2, 3 1455 2913 8.908 Hard, brittle, ferromagnetic metal used for battery electrodes and electroplating.
29 Cu copper 63.546 64 1, 2 1085 2562 8.96 Ductile red-brown metal, good electrical & thermal conductor. Used in wiring and plumbing. Also alloyed with Sn to produce bronze, and with Zn to produce brass.
30 Zn zinc 65.38 65 2 419.5 907 7.14 Brittle gray metal. Used in castings and electrodes, and also as a corrosion-inhibiting electroplated coating. Alloyed with Cu to make brass.
31 Ga gallium 69.723 70 2, 3 29.76 2204 5.91 Rare, glue-gray metal, melts near room temperature. Used in semiconductor technology.
32 Ge germanium 72.63 73 2, 4 938.3 2833 5.323 Brittle, gray-white semimetal, used in semiconductors.
33 As arsenic 74.922 75 3, 5 615* 615 5.73 Highly toxic semimetal with 3 allotropes: gray and black metallic forms, and a yellow nonmetal. Used in pesticides and as semiconductor doping agent.
*No liquid phase at pressure < 28 atmospheres.
34 Se selenium 78.96 79 2, 4, 6 221 685 4.28
4.81
Semimetal, with several allotropes: black vitreous, red powder, red crystals, and lustrous gray crystals, similar to sulfur. Used in rectifiers and in xerography.
35 Br bromine 79.904 80 1, 3, 5, 7 -7.2 58.8 3.19 Dark brown, volatile liquid at room temperature, forms reddish gas. Used in gasoline anti-knock compounds, fumigants, and photographic chemicals.
36 Kr krypton 83.798 84   -157.4 -153.2 3.73
10-3
Whitish inert gas, used in gas-discharge and fluorescent lamps for exceptionally penetrating light.
At.# Sym. Name At.Wt. Iso-
topes
Val. Melt
(C)
Boil
(C)
Sp.Gr. Remarks
37 Rb rubidium 85.468 85, 87 1, 2, 3, 4 39.31 688 1.532 Soft, silver-white metal. Ignites spontaneously in air. Found in many minerals and mineral water, as well as in coffee, tea, tobacco, and other plants. Used in photocells.
Rb-87 > Sr-87 +
b, half-life 4.71010.
38 Sr strontium 87.62 88, 85, 87, 90 2 777 1382 2.64 Silvery metal. Burns bright red, used in flares and fireworks.
Sr-85 used to detect bone cancer; Sr-90 emits
b, half-life 27 yr.
39 Y yttrium 88.906 89 3 1526 3336 4.472 Silvery metal, used to increase strength of Mg and Al alloys, and in color CRT phosphors.
40 Zr zirconium 91.224 91 2, 3, 4 1855 4409 6.56 Two allotropes: blue-black powder and soft, lustrous gray-white metal. Used in porcelain and alloys.
41 Nb niobium / columbium 92.906 93 2, 3, 5 2477 4744 8.57 Soft, silvery metal, often found in ores with Ta. Used in arc welding, superconductor research, and as a component of stainless steel.
42 Mo molybdenum 95.96 96 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 2623 4639 10.28 Hard, silver-white metal, used in alloys, fertilizers, dyes, enamels, reagents.
43 Tc technetium 98 90-111 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 2157 4265 11 First artificially created element (later found in nature in trace quantities).
Tc-99 half-life 4.2106 yr.
44 Ru ruthenium 101.07 101.07 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 2334 4150 12.45 Hard, acid-resistant white metal, used in hardened and superconducting alloys.
45 Rh rhodium 102.905 102.906 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 1964 2237 12.41 Hard, durable, silver-white metal. Used in electroplating for a highly reflective and corrosion-resistant coating.
46 Pd palladium 106.42 106 2, 3, 4 1555 3236 12.023 Soft, steel-white, tarnish-resistant metal. Absorbs H. Used in electrical contacts, jewelry, watches, and surgical instruments.
47 Ag silver 107.868 108 1, 2 961.8 2162 10.50 Malleable, lustrous white metal. Used in jewelry, tableware, photography, and alloy soldering.
48 Cd cadmium 112.411 112 2 321.1 767 8.65 Soft, blue-white metal. Used in low-friction alloys, dental amalgams, Ni-Cd batteries, nuclear reactor shields, and rustproof electroplating.
49 In indium 114.818 115 1, 2, 3 156.6 2072 7.31 Soft, malleable, silver-white metal, used in alloy bearings and reactor control rods.
50 Sn tin 118.710 119 2, 4 231.9 2602 5.789
7.365
Malleable, silvery metal. Used to coat other metals, and as part of solder, pewter, type metal, and bronze.
51 Sb antimony 121.760 122 3, 5 630.6 1587 6.697 Metal with 4 allotropes, most common of which is hard, brittle, lustrous silver-white crystalline substance. Used in alloys, ceramics, flame-proofing, paint, and storage batteries.
52 Te tellurium 127.60 128 2, 4, 6 449.5 988 6.24 Brittle silver-white metal, used in alloys and ceramics.
53 I iodine 126.904 127, 131 1, 3, 5, 7 113.7 184.3 4.933 Toxic, gray-black or purple solid. Used as an antiseptic and in thyroid treatment.
54 Xe xenon 131.293 131 0 -111.7 -108.1 5.894 10-3 Once believed inert, forms some compounds. Used in stroboscopic and laser pumping lamps.
At.# Sym. Name At.Wt. Iso-
topes
Val. Melt
(C)
Boil
(C)
Sp.Gr. Remarks
55 Cs cesium 132.905 133, 137 1 28.44 671 1.93 Soft, silver-white metal, liquefies near room temperature. Most electropositive element, except for Fr. Used in photoelectric cells.
56 Ba barium 137.33 137 2 727 1897 3.51 Soft, silver-white alkaline-earth metal. Its compounds are used in fireworks (BaNO3), pesticides (BaCO3), rubber products and paint (BaSO4).
57 La lanthanum 138.905 139 3 920 3464 6.162 Soft, silver-white rare-earth metal.
58 Ce cerium 140.116 140 3, 4 795 3443 6.70 Lustrous iron-gray rare-earth metal.
59 Pr praseodymium 140.908 141 3, 4 935 3520 6.77 Soft, silvery rare-earth metal.
60 Nd neodymium 144.242 144 3 1024 3074 7.01 Bright, silvery rare-earth metal; allotropes.
61 Pm promethium 145 141-154
(14)
3 1042 3000 7.26 Artificially created by U fission or neutron bombardment of Nd. Emits b.
62 Sm samarium 150.36 150 2, 3 1072 1794 7.52 Pale gray rare-earth metal.
63 Eu europium 151.964 152 2, 3 826 1529 5.264 Soft, silvery rare-earth metal. Fluoresces red when struck by b, absorbs neutrons.
64 Gd gadolinium 157.25 157 3 1312 3273 7.90 Silver-white rare-earth metal.
65 Tb terbium 158.925 159 3, 4 1356 3230 8.23 Soft, silver-gray rare-earth metal.
66 Dy dysprosium 162.500 162 3 1407 2840 8.540 Soft, silvery rare-earth metal.
67 Ho holmium 164.930 165 3 1461 2720 8.79 Stable, silvery rare-earth metal; highly paramagnetic.
68 Er erbium 167.259 167 3 1529 2868 9.066 Soft, silvery rare-earth metal.
69 Tm thulium 168.934 169 2, 3 1545 1950 9.32 Bright silver-gray rare-earth metal, used in portable X-ray machines.
70 Yb ytterbium 173.054 173 2, 3 824 1196 6.9 Soft, bright silvery rare-earth metal use in portable irradiation devices.
71 Lu lutetium 174.967 175 3 1652 3402 9.841 Rare, silver-white rare-earth metal.
Lu-? half-life 31010 yr. used for dating meteorites.
At.# Sym. Name At.Wt. Iso-
topes
Val. Melt
(C)
Boil
(C)
Sp.Gr. Remarks
72 Hf hafnium 178.49 178 4 2233 4603 13.31 Bright silver metal.
73 Ta tantalum 180.948 181 2, 3, 4, 5 3017 5458 16.6 Very hard gray metal, resistant to chemical action below 150C.
74 W tungsten 183.84 184 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 3422 5555 19.3 Highest melting point and lowest vapor pressure of any metal. Used in high-temperature applications, such as incandescent lamp filaments.
75 Re rhenium 186.207 186 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 3186 5596 21.02 Very hard metal, highest melting point except for tungsten, highest boiling point of any element.
76 Os osmium 190.23 190 2, 3, 4, 8 3033 5012 22.59 Hard, blue-white metal, the densest element. Used as a platinum hardener, and in pen points and instrument pivots.
77 Ir iridium 192.217 192 3, 4 2466 4428 22.56 Very hard, brittle, corrosion-resistant, yellow-white metal, the second-densest element. Used in high-temperature materials, electrical contacts, and water-resistant bearings.
78 Pt platinum 196.084 195 2, 3, 4 1768 3825 21.45 Rare, ductile, malleable, silver-white metal. Does not oxidize in air, and is one of few metals found free in nature. Used as catalyst and in electrical components, electroplating, dentistry, and jewelry.
79 Au gold 196.967 197 1, 3 1064 2856 19.32 Rare, soft, very unreactive yellow metal, one of few found free in nature. Used in jewelry and electrical contacts.
80 Hg mercury 200.59 201 1, 2 -38.83 356.7 13.546 Toxic, shiny, silvery liquid metal. Usually found as a sulfide in cinnabar. Used in barometers, thermometers, vapor lamps, and batteries.
81 Tl thallium 204.383 204 1, 3 304 1473 11.85 Soft, malleable, toxic metal used in photocells.
82 Pb lead 207.2 204, 206, 207, 208 2, 4 327.5 1749 11.35 Soft, dense, toxic, blue-gray metal. Usually extracted from its sulfide galena. Used in storage batteries, radiation shields, weights, type metal, solder, bullets, and paint.
U-238 > Pb-206; Ac > Pb-207; Th > Pb-208.
83 Bi bismuth 208.980 209, 210, 214 3, 5 271.5 1564 9.78 Pinkish metal. Highly diamagnetic, poor electrical and thermal conductor. Expands on solidifying, so is useful in castings.
84 Po polonium 209 192-218 2, 4 254 962 9.196
9.398
Naturally radioactive metal, produced by Ra decay, or by neutron bombardment of Bi or Pb. Po-210 emits a, half-life 138.39 da.
85 At astatine 210 200-219 1, 3, 5, 7 302 337 8 Densest and most metal-like halogen.
Naturally radioactive and very unstable. At-210 half-life 8.3 hr. Rarest naturally occurring element.
86 Rn radon 222 222, 220, 219 (19) 0 -71.15 -61.85 9.9
10-3
Naturally radioactive and densest noble gas, formed by decay, Ra-226 > Rn-222; Ac > Rn-219; Th > Rn-220.
Rn-222 emits neutrons, half-life 3.82 da.
At.# Sym. Name At.Wt. Iso-
topes
Val. Melt
(C)
Boil
(C)
Sp.Gr. Remarks
87 Fr francium 223 (19) 1 27? 677? 1.8? Most electropositive alkali metal, probably liquid at room temperature.
Fr-223 half-life 21 min.  Second rarest naturally occurring element.
88 Ra radium 226 213-230
(13)
2 700 1737 5.5 Radioactive alkaline-earth metal.
U > Ra-226.
Ra-226 (half-life 1622 yr.) > Rn +
a & neutron.
89 Ac actinium 227 209-234 3 1050 3198 10 Silvery metal; emits blue glow.
U-235 > Ac-227; Th-232 > Ac-228.
Ac-227 (half-life 21.7 yr.) emits
a,
90 Th thorium 232.038 212-236 4 2842 4788 11.7 Silver-white metal.
Th-232 half-life 1.41x1010 yr.
91 Pa protactinium 231.036 215-238   1568 4027? 15.37 Lustrous silvery metal.
Pa-231 (half-life 32480 yr.) > Ac-227 +
a.
92 U uranium 238.029 238, 234, 235, 233, 237, 239 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 1132 4131 19.1 Toxic, silver-white metal. Used in research, nuclear fuel, nuclear weapons.
U-238 (half-life 4.51x109 yr.) > Pb-206
U-235 half-life 7.13x108 yr.
93 Np neptunium 237 228-242   637 4000 20.45 Np-237 half-life 2.14x106 yr.
94 Pu plutonium 244 244, 239 3, 4, 5, 6 639.4 3228 19.816 Silvery metal. PU-239 used in nuclear fuel, nuclear weapons.
Pu-244 half-life 7.6x107 yr.
95 Am americium 243 237-246 3, 4, 5, 6 1176 2607 12 Silver-white metal.
Am-243 >
a, half-life 7950 yr.
96 Cm curium 247 247, 244 (13) 3 1340 3110 13.51 Silvery metal.
Cm-247 half-life 1.64x107 yr.
97 Bk berkelium 247 242-251
(10)
3, 4 986   13.75
14.78
Bk-247 half-life 1380 yr.
98 Cf californium 251 244-254   900 1470 15.1 Cf-251 (half-life 800 yr.) emits neutrons.
99 Es einsteinium 252 253-256   860   8.84 Es-254 half-life 276 da.
100 Fm fermium 257 248-257
(10)
  1527     Fm-257 half-life 100 da.
101 Md mendelevium 258 258, 256, 255   827     Md-256 half-life 1.5 hr.
102 No nobelium 259 250-262     4000    No-255 half-life 3 min.
103 Lr lawrencium 262 255-260         Lr-260 half-life 3 min.
At.# Sym. Name At.Wt. Iso-
topes
Val. Melt
(C)
Boil
(C)
Sp.Gr. Remarks
104 Rf rutherfordium 261.11 261-268
(6)
  2100 5500 23? Bright silver metal.
Rf-267 half-life 1.3 hr.
105 Db dubnium 268 262-270
(6)
        Ds-268 half-life 29 hr.
106 Sg seaborgium 271 258-271
(12)
        Sg-269 half-life 2.1 min.
107 Bh bohrium 270 267-274
(5)
        Bh-270 half-life 61 sec.
108 Hs hassium 269 263-277
(14)
        Hs-277 half-life ~11 min.
109 Mt meitnerium 278 266-278
(5)
        Mt-270m half-life 1.1 sec.
110 Ds darmstadtium 281 267-281
(11)
        Ds-281b half-life 3.7 min.
111 Rg roentgenium 281 272-282
(7)
        Rg-281 half-life ~26 sec.
112 Cn coperinicium 285 277-285
(8)
        Cn-283 half-life 4 min.
At.# Sym. Name At.Wt. Iso-
topes
Val. Melt
(C)
Boil
(C)
Sp.Gr. Remarks


    Periodic Table   Element Groups   Properties   Cross-References    


Cross-Reference Tables

Color codes

alkali metals transition metals nonmetals halogens
alkali earth metals rate earth metals post-transition metals inert gases
Alphabetic
by Name
Name Sym. At.#
actinium Ac 89
aluminum Al 13
americium Am 95
antimony Sb 51
argon Ar 18
arsenic As 33
astatine At 85
barium Ba 56
berkelium Bk 97
beryllium Be 4
bismuth Bi 83
bohrium Bh 107
boron B 5
bromine Br 35
cadmium Cd 48
calcium Ca 20
californium Cf 98
carbon C 6
cerium Ce 58
cesium Cs 55
Name Sym. At.#
chlorine Cl 17
chromium Cr 24
cobalt Co 27
copernicium Cn 112
copper Cu 29
curium Cm 96
darmstadtium Ds 110
dubnium Db 105
dysprosium Dy 66
erbium Er 68
einsteinium Es 99
europium Eu 63
fermium Fm 100
fluorine F 9
francium Fr 87
gallium Ga 31
gadolinium Gd 64
germanium Ge 32
gold Au 79
hafnium Hf 72
Name Sym. At.#
hassium Hs 108
helium He 2
holmium Ho 67
hydrogen H 1
indium In 49
iodine I 53
iridium Ir 77
iron Fe 26
krypton Kr 36
lanthanum La 57
lawrencium Lr 103
lead Pb 82
lithium Li 3
lutetium Lu 71
magnesium Mg 12
manganese Mn 25
meitnerium Mt 109
mendelevium Md 101
mercury Hg 80
molybdenum Mo 42
Name Sym. At.#
neodymium Nd 60
neon Ne 10
neptunium Np 93
nickel Ni 28
niobium Nb 41
nitrogen N 7
nobelium No 102
osmium Os 76
oxygen O 8
palladium Pd 46
phosphorus P 15
platinum Pt 78
plutonium Pu 94
polonium Po 84
potassium K 19
praseodymium Pr 59
promethium Pm 61
protactinium Pa 91
radium Ra 88
radon Rn 86
Name Sym. At.#
rhenium Re 75
rhodium Rh 45
roentgenium Rg 111
rubidium Rb 37
ruthenium Ru 44
rutherfordium Rf 104
samarium Sm 62
scandium Sc 21
seaborgium Sg 106
selenium Se 34
silicon Si 14
silver Ag 47
sodium Na 11
strontium Sr 38
sulfur S 16
tantalum Ta 73
technetium Tc 43
tellurium Te 52
terbium Tb 65
thallium Tl 81
Name Sym. At.#
thorium Th 90
thulium Tm 69
tin Sn 50
titanium Ti 22
tungsten W 74
uranium U 92
vanadium V 23
xenon Xe 54
ytterbium Yb 70
yttrium Y 39
zinc Zn 30
zirconium Zr 40
Name Sym. At.#
Alphabetic
by Name
Alphabetic
by Symbol
Sym. Name At.#
Ac actinium 89
Ag silver 47
Al aluminum 13
Am americium 95
Ar argon 18
As arsenic 33
At astatine 85
Au gold 79
B boron 5
Ba barium 56
Be beryllium 4
Bh bohrium 107
Bi bismuth 83
Bk berkelium 97
Br bromine 35
C carbon 6
Ca calcium 20
Cd cadmium 48
Ce cerium 58
Cf californium 98
Sym. Name At.#
Cl chlorine 17
Cm curium 96
Cn copernicium 112
Co cobalt 27
Cr chromium 24
Cs cesium 55
Cu copper 29
Db dubnium 105
Ds darmstadtium 110
Dy dysprosium 66
Er erbium 68
Es einsteinium 99
Eu europium 63
F fluorine 9
Fe iron 26
Fm fermium 100
Fr francium 87
Ga gallium 31
Gd gadolinium 64
Ge germanium 32
Sym. Name At.#
H hydrogen 1
He helium 2
Hf hafnium 72
Hg mercury 80
Ho holmium 67
Hs hassium 108
I iodine 53
In indium 49
Ir iridium 77
K potassium 19
Kr krypton 36
La lanthanum 57
Li lithium 3
Lr lawrencium 103
Lu lutetium 71
Md mendelevium 101
Mg magnesium 12
Mn manganese 25
Mo molybdenum 42
Mt meitnerium 109
Sym. Name At.#
N nitrogen 7
Na sodium 11
Nb niobium 41
Nd neodymium 60
Ne neon 10
Ni nickel 28
No nobelium 102
Np neptunium 93
O oxygen 8
Os osmium 76
P phosphorus 15
Pa protactinium 91
Pb lead 82
Pd palladium 46
Pm promethium 61
Po polonium 84
Pr praseodymium 59
Pt platinum 78
Pu plutonium 94
Ra radium 88
Sym. Name At.#
Rb rubidium 37
Re rhenium 75
Rf rutherfordium 104
Rg roentgenium 111
Rh rhodium 45
Rn radon 86
Ru ruthenium 44
S sulfur 16
Sb antimony 51
Sc scandium 21
Se selenium 34
Sg seaborgium 106
Si silicon 14
Sm samarium 62
Sn tin 50
Sr strontium 38
Ta tantalum 73
Tb terbium 65
Tc technetium 43
Te tellurium 52
Sym. Name At.#
Th thorium 90
Ti titanium 22
Tl thallium 81
Tm thulium 69
U uranium 92
V vanadium 23
W tungsten 74
Xe xenon 54
Y yttrium 39
Yb ytterbium 70
Zn zinc 30
Zr zirconium 40
Sym. Name At.#
Alphabetic
by Symbol
Numeric by
Melt Temperature
Melt C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
< -272 2 He
   -259 1 H
   -248.59 10 Ne
   -227.5 (β)
   -219.62 (α)
9 F
   -218.79 8 O
   -209.9 7 N
   -189.36 18 Ar
   -157.36 36 Kr
   -111.7 54 Xe
   -101.6 17 Cl
    -71.15 86 Rn
    -38.83 80 Hg
     -7.2 35 Br
     27 (est.) 87 Fr
     28.44 55 Cs
     29.765 31 Ga
     39.31 37 Rb
     44.2 15 P
     63.38 19 K
Melt C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
     97.72 11 Na
    113.7 53 I
    112.8 (β)
    115.21 (γ)
    119 (α)
16 S
    156.5985 49 In
    179 3 Li
    221 34 Se
    231.93 50 Sn
    254 84 Po
    271.5 83 Bi
    302 85 At
    304 81 Tl
    321.07 48 Cd
    327.46 82 Pb
     44.2 (white)
    416-590 (red)
    610 (black)
    620 (violet)
15 P
    419.53 30 Zn
    449.51 52 Te
    615 33 As
Melt C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
    630.63 51 Sb
    637 93 Np
    639.4 94 Pu
    650 12 Mg
    660.32 13 Al
    700 88 Ra
    727 56 Ba
    777 38 Sr
    795 58 Ce
    824 70 Yb
    826 63 Eu
    827 101 Md
    842-848 20 Ca
    860 99 Es
    900 98 Cf
    920 57 La
    935 59 Pr
    938.25 32 Ge
    961.78 47 Ag
    986 97 Bk
Melt C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
   1024 60 Nd
   1042 61 Pm
   1050 89 Ac
   1064.18 79 Au
   1072 62 Sm
   1084.62 29 Cu
   1132.2 92 U
   1176 95 Am
   1246 25 Mn
   1287 4 Be
   1312 64 Gd
   1340 96 Cm
   1356 65 Tb
   1407 66 Dy
   1414 14 Si
   1455 28 Ni
   1461 67 Ho
   1495 27 Co
   1526 39 Y
   1527 100 Fm
Melt C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
   1529 68 Er
   1538 39 Fe
   1541 21 Sc
   1545 69 Tm
   1554.9 45 Pd
   1568 91 Pa
   1652 71 Lu
   1668 22 Ti
   1768.3 78 Pt
   1842 90 Th
   1855 40 Zr
   1907 24 Cr
   1910 23 V
   1964 45 Rh
   2076 5 B
   2100 (est.) 104 Rf
   2157 43 Tc
   2233 72 Hf
   2334 44 Ru
   2466 77 Ir
Melt C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
   2477 41 Nb
   2623 42 Mo
   3017 73 Ta
   3033 76 Os
   3186 75 Re
   3422 74 W
   3642
(sublimation)
6 C
Melt C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
Melting temperatures of the following elements have not been determined or estimated.
  At.# Sym.
  102 No
  103 Lr
  105 Db
  106 Sg
  107 Bh
  108 Hs
  109 Mt
  110 Ds
  111 Rg
  112 Cn
  At.# Sym.
Numeric by
Melt Temperature
Numeric by
Boil Temperature
Boil C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
   -268 2 He
   -253 1 H
   -246.08 10 Ne
   -195.8 7 N
   -188.12 9 F
   -185.85 18 Ar
   -182.95 8 O
   -153.22 36 Kr
   -108.12 54 Xe
    -61.85 86 Rn
    -34.04 17 Cl
     58.8 35 Br
    184.3 53 I
    337 85 At
    356.73 80 Hg
    444.6 16 S
    280.5 (white)
    416-590 (red)
    610 (black)
    620 (violet)
15 P
    615 33 As
Boil C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
    671 55 Cs
    677 (est.) 87 Fr
    685 34 Se
    688 37 Rb
    759 19 K
    767 48 Cd
    883 11 Na
    907 30 Zn
    962 84 Po
    988 52 Te
   1091 12 Mg
   1196 70 Yb
   1342 3 Li
   1382 38 Sr
   1470 98 Cf
   1473 81 Tl
   1484 20 Ca
   1529 63 Eu
   1564 83 Bi
   1587 51 Sb
Boil C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
   1737 88 Ra
   1749 82 Pb
   1794 62 Sm
   1897 56 Ba
   1950 69 Tm
   2061 25 Mn
   2072 49 In
   2162 47 Ag
   2204 31 Ga
   2469 4 Be
   2519 13 Al
   2562 29 Cu
   2562 66 Dy
   2602 50 Sn
   2607 95 Am
   2671 24 Cr
   2720 67 Ho
   2833 32 Ge
   2836 21 Sc
   2856 79 Au
Boil C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
   2862 39 Fe
   2868 68 Er
   2913 28 Ni
   2927 27 Co
   2963 46 Pd
   3000 61 Pm
   3074 60 Nd
   3110 96 Cm
   3198 89 Ac
   3228 94 Pu
   3230 65 Tb
   3265 14 Si
   3273 64 Gd
   3287 22 Ti
   3336 39 Y
   3402 71 Lu
   3407 23 V
   3443 58 Ce
   3464 57 La
   3520 59 Pr
Boil C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
   3642 6 C
   3695 45 Rh
   3825 78 Pt
   3927 5 B
   4000 93 Np
   4000 102 No
   4027 (est.) 91 Pa
   4131 92 U
   4150 44 Ru
   4265 43 Tc
   4409 40 Zr
   4428 77 Ir
   4603 72 Hf
   4639 42 Mo
   4744 41 Nb
   4788 90 Th
   5012 76 Os
   5458 73 Ta
   5500 (est.) 104 Rf
   5555 74 W
Boil C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
   5596 75 Re
Boil C @ s.p. At.# Sym.
Boiling temperatures of the following elements have not been determined or estimated.
  At.# Sym.
  97 Bk
  99 Es
  100 Fm
  101 Md
  103 Lr
  105 Db
  106 Sg
  107 Bh
  108 Hs
  109 Mt
  110 Ds
  111 Rg
  112 Cn
  At.# Sym.
Numeric by
Boil Temperature
Numeric by
Mean Density
Sp.Gr. @ s.t.p. At.Wt. At.# Sym.
 0.00008987   1.008 1 H
 0.0001785   4.0026 2 He
 0.0009002  20.183 10 Ne
 0.001251  14.0067 7 N
 0.001429  15.994 8 O
 0.001696  18.9984 9 F
 0.001784  39.948 18 Ar
 0.0032  35.453 17 Cl
 0.0037349  83.790 36 Kr
 0.005894 131.293 54 Xe
 0.00973 222 86 Rn
 0.534    6.941 3 Li
 0.862  39.098 19 K
 0.971  22.990 11 Na
 1.532  85.468 37 Rb
 1.55  40.078 20 Ca
 1.74  24.305 12 Mg
 1.848   9.0122 4 Be
 1.87 (est.) 223 87 Fr
 1.93 132.91 55 Cs
Sp.Gr. @ s.t.p. At.Wt. At.# Sym.
 1.92 (γ)
 1.96 (β)
 2.07 (α)
 32.064 16 S
 1.823 (white)
 2.2-2.34 (red)
 2.36 (violet)
 2.69 (black)
 30.974 15 P
 2.33  28.086 14 Si
 2.34  10.811 5 B
 2.64  87.62 38 Sr
 1.8-2.1(amorph.)
 2.267 (graphite)
 3.515 (diamond)
 12.011 6 C
 2.70  26.982 13 Al
 2.99  44.956 21  Sc
 3.19  79.904 35 Br
 3.51 137.33 56 Ba
 4.472   88.905 39 Y
 4.54   47.90 22 Ti
 4.28 (vitreous)
 4.39 (alpha)
 4.81 (gray)
  78.96 34 Se
Sp.Gr. @ s.t.p. At.Wt. At.# Sym.
 4.933 126.904 53 I
 5.254 151.964 63 Eu
 5.323  72.63 32 Ge
 5.5 226 88 Ra
 5.73  74.922 33 As
 5.91  69.723 31 Ga
 6.11  50.942 23 V
 6.162 138.91 57 La
 6.24 127.60 52 Te
 6.56  91.224 40 Zr
 5.769 (gray / α)
 7.365 (white / β)
118.710 50 Sn
 6.697 121.75 51 Sb
 6.70 140.116 73 Ce
 6.8 140.98 69 Pr
 6.9 173.054 70 Yb
 7.01 144.24 60 Nd
 7.14  65.38 30 Zn
 7.19  51.996 24 Cr
 7.21  54.938 25 Mn
 7.26 145 61 Pm
Sp.Gr. @ s.t.p. At.Wt. At.# Sym.
 7.31 114.818 49 In
 7.52 150.36 62 Sm
 7.874  55.845 26 Fe
 7.90 157.25 64 Gd
 8. (est.) 210 85 At
 8.23 158.925 65 Tb
 8.540 162.500 66 Dy
 8.57  92.906 41 Nb
 8.65 112.411 48 Cd
 8.79 164.930 67 Ho
 8.84 252 99 Es
 8.90  58.933 27 Co
 8.908  58.693 28 Ni
 8.96  63.546 29 Cu
 9.066 167.259 68 Er
 9.196 (α)
 9.398 (β)
209 84 Po
 9.32 168.934 69 Tm
 9.78 208.980 83 Bi
 9.841 174.967 71 Lu
Sp.Gr. @ s.t.p. At.Wt. At.# Sym.
10. 227 89 Ac
10.28  95.96 42 Mo
10.50 107.868 47 Ag
11.  98 43 Tc
11.35 207.2 82 Pb
11.7 282.038 90 Th
11.85 204.383 81 Tl
12. 243 95 Am
12.023 106.42 46 Pd
12.41 102.906 45 Rh
12.45 101.07 44 Ru
13.31 178.49 72 Hf
13.51 247 96 Cm
13.546 200.59 80 Hg
13.25 (β)
14.78 (α)
247 97 Bk
15.1 251 98 Cf
15.37 231.036 91 Pa
16.69 180.948 73 Ta
19.1 238.029 92 U
Sp.Gr. @ s.t.p. At.Wt. At.# Sym.
19.3 183.84 74 W
19.32 196.967 79 Au
19.816 244 94 Pu
20.45 237 93 Np
21.02 186.207 75 Re
21.45 196.084 78 Pt
22.56 192.217 77 Ir
22.59 190.23 76 Os
23. (est.) 261.11 104 Rf
Sp.Gr. @ s.t.p. At.Wt. At.# Sym.
Densities of the following elements have not been determined or estimated.
  At.Wt. At.# Sym.
  257 100 Fm
  258 101 Md
  259 102 No
  260 103 Lr
  268 105 Db
  269 108 Hs
  270 107 Bh
  271 106 Sg
  278 109 Mt
  281 110 Ds
  281 111 Rg
  285 112 Cn
  At.Wt. At.# Sym.
Numeric by Mean Density

Color codes

alkali metals transition metals nonmetals halogens
alkali earth metals rate earth metals post-transition metals inert gases


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